Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterised by insulin deficiency due to autoimmune destruction of beta-pancreatic cells. T1D, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes in children and adolescents. On diagnosis, parents of children with TID experience considerable stress, because they need to care for a child in a challenging and life-threatening situation that requires adherence to an intensive medical regimen, constant monitoring of, and coping with their child’s condition. T1D is a complex condition that affects both children and their parents in many aspects of their daily lives. This study presents the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Parent Diabetes Distress Scale (PDDS), which assesses diabetes distress in parents of children with T1D. A sample of 95 parents, mainly mothers (88.4%), with a mean age of their children 12.2 years (± 3.6) and a diabetes duration of 4.7 years (± 3.4), completed the Greek translation of the PDDS. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a five-factor model: ‘Parent/child relationship distress’, ‘Personal distress’, ‘Child diabetes management distress’, ‘Future distress’, and ‘Healthcare team distress’. Confirmation Factor Analysis (CFA) confirmed the construct validity of the scale. The internal consistency indices (Cronbach alpha) for the subscales ranged from 0.69 to 0.89, while the unidimensional structure had an alpha of 0.90. Furthermore, convergent validity was shown with moderate positive correlations between the PDDS-Gr and the subscales of the DASS-21 (depression, anxiety, and stress), the child’s age (in years), and the HbA1c value. Finally, parents of children with inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7%) presented higher scores on both the unidimensional structure and the subscales ‘Parent/child relationship distress’ and ‘Healthcare team distress’ of the PDDS-Gr. The PDDS-Gr is a valid and reliable tool for assessing diabetes distress in parents of children with T1D and can be used in both clinical and research settings.

KEYWORDS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, diabetes distress, parental stress, children, factor analysis.

Emmanouil S. Benioudakis, Argyroula Kalaitzaki, Eleni Karlafti, Maria A. Makri, Theodosia Arvanitaki, Maria-Alexandra Kalpou, Christos Savopoulos, Triantafyllos Didangelos


Full article in pdf